A Paradigm Lost: The linguistic thought of Mikołaj by Joanna Radwanska-Williams

By Joanna Radwanska-Williams

The final idea of language of Mikołaj Kruszweski (1851-1887) is, this e-book argues, a “lost paradigm” within the background of linguistics. the concept that of 'paradigm' is known in a greatly construed Kuhnian feel, and its applicability to linguistics as a technological know-how is tested. it truly is argued that Kruszewski's concept used to be a covert paradigm in that his significant paintings, Ocerk nauki o jazyke ('An define of the technology of Language', 1883), had the capability to be seminal within the historical past of linguistics, i.e. to accomplish the prestige of a 'classical text', or 'exemplar'. This capability used to be now not discovered simply because Kruszewski's impression was once hindered via a number of historic elements, together with his early demise and the simultaneous consolidation of the Neogrammarian paradigm, with its emphasis on phonology and language switch. The e-book examines the highbrow history of Kruszweski's inspiration, which was once rooted, partially, within the culture of British empiricism. It additionally discusses Kruszewski's dating to his instructor Jean Baudouin de Courtenay (1845-1929), his perspective in the direction of the Neogrammarian circulate in linguistics, the ambivalent reception of his conception through his contemporaries, and the impression of his paintings at the linguistic conception of Roman Jakobson (1896-1982).

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E. can be tested by the methods of experimental science. For Mill, such an assertion constitutes a logical proposition; the truth of a proposition can be tested against observed facts. A proposition about the world is itself an inductive inference from observed facts. Only induction, Mill argues, can add to knowledge, because it can take into account new observation and therefore new information. Deduction is only an interpretation of the implications of what is already known; it does not add new information.

For example, our mental image of a rose is a complex image built up of the different sense experiences associated in our experience of a rose: the color red, the smell, the shape of the petals, etc. For some of the empirical philosophers, for example James Mill in the Analysis of the Phenomena of the Human Mind (1829), association by contiguity alone was sufficient to account for the formation of complex ideas. , the association of contrasting images. The latter was the least widely accepted, since the possibility of contrast implies an underlying component of similarity, and thus association by contrast can be reduced to association by similarity.

This was the operative model for the empiricist account of association of ideas. Association was the mechanism of the formation of ideas, and the 'laws' of association were modeled after the natural laws of physics. In other words, complex ideas are built up from sense impressions because mental images (impressions or ideas) attract one another, just as natural bodies are attracted one to another by the force of gravity. Although the account of the laws of association differs slightly with each of the empirical philosophers (cf.

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