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Additional info for Advanced techniques in image-guided brain and spine surgery
3 mm (unpublished data). 5 mm (unpublished data). These error values are summarized in Table 2–1. The relatively poor accuracy and precision of registration performed using skinaffixed markers is probably due to deformation of the skin surface between the time of scanning and the time of treatment. The relatively poor accuracy of registration performed using anatomical landmarks is probably due to deformation of the skin surface, and also the difficulty in accurately determining the same anatomical landmark in the image and on the patient.
0 mm or less. The relatively high accuracy of registration performed using bone-implanted markers (see Fig. 2–5) is due to the fact that the markers are anchored to the rigid cranium, and also to the fact that the markers can be localized accurately in both the image (by using a semiautomatic algorithm for finding the imaging marker centroid with subvoxel accuracy4) and physical space (by placing a ball-tipped probe in the hemispherical divot of the localization cap whose position corresponds to the centroid of the image markers).
For IIR, internal landmarks are generally used. , where a nerve passes through a foramen). , the nasion, the medial and lateral canthi, the tragus, and the tip of the nose). , affixed to the skin or implanted in the cranium). pgsI 2/28/02 10:42 AM Page 21 Sources of Error in Image Registration for Cranial Image-Guided Neurosurgery material, and the fiducial point for such a marker is generally defined as the centroid of the spherical or cylindrical cavity. , Wang et al4). In our experience, manual localization of both anatomical landmarks and fiducial markers is easier and produces more accurate results when three orthogonal views, instead of one or two, are used simultaneously during the interactive visual identification process.